Leviticus/Numbers (Niv Application Commentary Series)
Leviticus and Numbers tell of an epic journey to freedom, while illuminating and challenging modern conceptions of God. Vivid imagery of rituals, laws addressing tough issues, and narratives ranging from exultant to gut-wrenching show what it means to interact with...
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Leviticus and Numbers tell of an epic journey to freedom, while illuminating and challenging modern conceptions of God. Vivid imagery of rituals, laws addressing tough issues, and narratives ranging from exultant to gut-wrenching show what it means to interact with the Lord and how to live according to his holy principles as part of a redeemed community of faith.
Leviticus/Numbers, which is part of the NIV Application Commentary Series, helps readers learn how the message of Leviticus and Numbers can have the same powerful impact today that they did when they were first written.
insight into how the Israelite's story of covenant experience with God becomes our story todayLeviticus and Numbers tell of an epic journey to freedom, while illuminating and challenging modern conceptions of God. Vivid imagery of rituals, laws addressing tough issues, and narratives ranging from exultant to gut-wrenching show what it means to interact with the Lord and how to live according to his holy principles as part of a redeemed community of faith.
The NIV Application Commentary: Leviticus, Numbers Copyright 2004 by Roy GaneRequests for information should be addressed to:Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49530Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gane, Roy, 1955-. Leviticus, Numbers / Roy E. Gane. p. cm.-(NIV application commentary) Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN: 0-310-21088-7 1. Bible. O.T. Leviticus-Commentaries. 2. Bible. O.T. Numbers-Commentaries. I. Title. II. Series. BS1255.53.G36 2004 22''.13077-dc22 2004000477 CIPThis edition printed on acid-free paper.All Scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the Holy Bible: New International Version. NIV. Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society.Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved.The website addresses recommended throughout this book are offered as a resource to you. These websites are not intended in any way to be or imply an endorsement on the part of Zondervan, nor do we vouch for their content for the life of this book.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means-electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other-except for brief quotations in printed reviews, without the prior permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States of America04 05 06 07 08 09 10 /.DC/10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Leviticus 1:1THE LORD CALLED to Moses and spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting. He said,ORIGINAL MEANINGLEVITICUS CONTINUES THE STORY of Israel''s epic journey to freedom in the Promised Land of Canaan. It may be regarded as a literary unit that comprises a book, but it belongs to the larger whole of the five books of Moses (Genesis to Deuteronomy). While most of Leviticus consists of laws, beginning with instructions for sacrificial rituals to be performed at the sanctuary, this legislation is placed within a narrative framework that picks up where the story of Exodus ends.According to Exodus 19:1, the Israelites came to the Sinai Desert in the third month after they left Egypt. At the end of this book the tabernacle was set up "on the first day of the first month in the second year" (40:17; emphasis supplied; cf. v. 2), that is, the second year after the Israelites had left Egypt. Numbers 1:1 begins exactly one month later-"on the first day of the second month of the second year" (emphasis supplied)-with the Israelites still in the Sinai Desert. So the basic chronological framework of the book of Leviticus, sandwiched between Exodus and Numbers, occupies only one month in the Sinai Desert.We must allow for the possibility that some earlier and later materials may have been incorporated into Leviticus for topical reasons. Some instructions were delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai (7:38; 25:1; 26:46; 27:34), perhaps before the tabernacle was set up. Notice that Moses'' last recorded trip up Mount Sinai was in Exodus 34. The blasphemer narrative, with its accompanying law-giving (Lev. 24:10-23), could have occurred at any time while the Israelites were camping in the desert. Even so, after the multi-millennial scope of Genesis and Exodus covering most of a century, Leviticus presents a mighty concentrated dose of divine revelation!Confirming that Leviticus is intended as the next volume in a series, its first verse is a grammatical and structural continuation of the last few verses of Exodus. In Hebrew its first word is a waw consecutive form in which waw ("and") is prefixed to a verb meaning "call." So we can render literally: "And he called...." It is true that an initial waw can simply be stylistic, without indicating that anything has gone before. However, real continuity in this case is confirmed by the fact that 1:1 completes a literary structure that begins in Exodus.We discover the structure that binds Exodus and Leviticus together by looking for a parallel to the first three words of Leviticus: wayyiqra,,el Mosheh ("And he called
The NIV Application Commentary on Leviticus/Numbers shows how two neglected biblical books recounting an epic journey to freedom illuminate and challenge modern conceptions of God. Through vivid visual imagery of rituals, laws addressing tough issues for real people with real problems, and narratives that range from exultant to gut-wrenching, the reader learns what it means to interact with the Lord and live according to his holy principles as part of a redeemed community of faith. The Israelites' story of covenant experience with God is our story because we share the same divine covenant partner. Leviticus and Numbers reveal what God is like in relation to human beings and how they can effectively interact with him across the boundary between the seen and unseen realms. Although the biblical books are clothed in the garb of an ancient culture and its institutions, their rituals, narratives, and laws encapsulate timeless principles that apply to modern life. We too can participate in transactions with God and profit from their experience because it parallels our own on a deeper level: The Lord continues to deliver us and transforms us into "a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people belonging to God" (1 Peter 2:9) so that he can dwell with us and be our God (Rev. 21:3).
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Roy Gane (PhD, University of California, Berkeley) is professor of Hebrew Bible and ancient near eastern languages at the Theological Seminary of Andrews University. He is author of a number of scholarly articles and several books including God's Faulty Heroes (Review Herald, 1996-on the biblical book of Judges), Altar Call (Diadem, 1999-on the Israelite sanctuary services and their meaning for Christians), Ritual Dynamic Structure (Gorgias Press, 2004), Leviticus, Numbers (NIV Application Commentary; Zondervan, 2004), and Cult and Character: Purification Offerings, Day of Atonement, and Theod
- Contents 9 Series Introduction
- 13 General Editor's Preface
- 15 Author's Preface
- 17 Abbreviations
- 23 Introduction To Leviticus
- 37 Outline Of Leviticus
- 43 Select Bibliography On Leviticus
- 51 Text And Commentary On Leviticus
- 471 Introduction To Numbers
- 481 Outline Of Numbers
- 487 Select Bibliography On Numbers
- 491 Text And Commentary On Numbers
- 807 Scripture Index
- 830 Subject Index
- 841 Author Index
- 846 Ancient Literature Index