Sociology (4th Edition)
Sociology is the leading introduction in its field in the world today. The new fourth edition preserves, and further enhances, the book's striking qualities - its lucidity, liveliness, comprehensiveness and originality.This edition incorporates many new materials. All the empirical data...
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Sociology is the leading introduction in its field in the world today. The new fourth edition preserves, and further enhances, the book's striking qualities - its lucidity, liveliness, comprehensiveness and originality.This edition incorporates many new materials. All the empirical data are the latest available. In its original edition, the book was the first text to incorporate a treatment of cutting-edge areas of the subject, such as the impact of globalization. The new edition is equally innovative: it is the first textbook in sociology fully to come to terms with the impact of the internet and the new economy. An analysis of these developments is fed into many of the chapters.The fourth edition also includes a diversity of new chapters, sections and topics. There are new chapters, for example, on poverty and social exclusion and on ecological problems. As with previous editions, the book maintains a strongly comparative orientation, with materials drawn from a variety of different
Detailed Contents Preface to the Fourth Edition How to Use this Book 1 What is Sociology? DEVELOPING A SOCIOLOGICAL OUTLOOK Studying sociology HOW CAN SOCIOLOGY HELP US IN OUR LIVES? Awareness of cultural differences Assessing the effects of policies Self-enlightenment THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THINKING Early theorists Auguste Comte Emile Durkheim Karl Marx Max Weber SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES Functionalism Conflict perspectives Social action perspectives New directions in sociological thinking CONCLUSION Summary points Critical thinking questions 2 Culture and Society THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE Values and norms Cultural diversity Ethnocentrism SOCIALIZATION Social roles Identity TYPES OF SOCIETY Disappearing world: premodern societies and their fate The modern world: industrial societies Global development SOCIAL CHANGE Influences on social change Change in the modern period CONCLUSION Summary points Critical thinking questions Further reading 3 A Changing World DIMENSIONS OF GLOBALIZATION Factors contributing to globalization The causes of increasing globalization THE GLOBALIZATION DEBATE The ''sceptics'' The ''hyperglobalizers'' The ''transformationalists'' THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON OUR LIVES Identity Work patterns Popular culture GLOBALIZATION AND RISK The spread of ''manufactured risk'' The global ''risk society'' GLOBALIZATION AND INEQUALITY Inequality and global stratification The campaign for ''global justice'' CONCLUSION: THE NEED FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCE Summary points Critical thinking questions Further reading Internet links 4 Social Interaction and Everyday Life THE STUDY OF EVERYDAY LIFE Microsociology and macrosociology NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION The face, gestures and emotion ''Face'' and self esteem Gender and non-verbal communication SOCIAL RULES AND TALK Shared understandings Garfinkel''s experiments ''Interactional vandalism'' Forms of talk Response cries Slips of the tongue FACE, BODY AND SPEECH IN INTERACTION Encounters Markers Impression management Front and back regions Personal space INTERACTION IN TIME AND SPACE Clock time Social life and the ordering of space and time CONCLUSION: THE COMPULSION OF PROXIMITY Summary points Critical thinking questions Further reading 5 Gender and Sexuality GENDER DIFFERENCES Gender socialization Gender and biology: natural difference The social construction of gender and sex PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER INEQUALITY Functionalist approaches Feminist approaches FEMININITIES, MASCULINITES AND GENDER RELATIONS R. W. Connell: the gender order Transforming masculinities HUMAN SEXUALITY Biology and sexual behaviour Social influences on sexual behaviour Sexuality in Western culture A new fidelity? HOMOSEXUALITY Homosexuality in Western culture Attitudes towards homosexuality The campaign for legal rights and recognition Prostitution Prostitution today Child prostitution and the global ''sex industry'' Explaining prostitution CONCLUSION: GENDER AND GLOBALIZATION Summary points Critical thinking questions Further reading Internet links 6 Sociology of the Body: Health, Illness and Ageing THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE BODY THE SOCIAL BASIS OF HEALTH Class and health Gender and health Race and health The ''inverse care'' law MEDICINE AND SOCIETY The rise of the biomedical model of health The biomedical model Critiques of the biomedical model Medicine and health in a changing world SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HEALTH AND ILLNESS The sick role Illness as ''lived experience'' HEALTH AND AGEING The physical effects of ageing Problems of ageing CONCLUSION: THE FUTURE OF AGEING Summary points Critical thinking questions Further reading Internet links 7 Families BASIC CONCEPTS Family diversity THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE FAMILY Functionalism Feminist approaches New perspectives in the sociology of the family MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE IN BRITAIN Lone-parent households Remarriage Reconstituted families The ''absent father'' Women remaining childless VARIATIONS IN FAMILY PATTERNS: ETHNIC DIVERSITY IN BRITAIN South Asian families Bl
Detailed Contents Preface to the Fourth EditionHow to Use this Book1 What is Sociology?DEVELOPING A SOCIOLOGICAL OUTLOOKStudying sociologyHOW CAN SOCIOLOGY HELP US IN OUR LIVES?Awareness of cultural differencesAssessing the effects of policiesSelf-enlightenmentTHE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THINKINGEarly theoristsAuguste ComteEmile DurkheimKarl MarxMax WeberSOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVESFunctionalismConflict perspectivesSocial action perspectivesNew directions in sociological thinkingCONCLUSIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questions2 Culture and SocietyTHE CONCEPT OF CULTUREValues and normsCultural diversityEthnocentrismSOCIALIZATIONSocial rolesIdentityTYPES OF SOCIETYDisappearing world: premodern societies and their fateThe modern world: industrial societiesGlobal developmentSOCIAL CHANGEInfluences on social changeChange in the modern periodCONCLUSIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther reading3 A Changing WorldDIMENSIONS OF GLOBALIZATIONFactors contributing to globalizationThe causes of increasing globalizationTHE GLOBALIZATION DEBATEThe ''sceptics''the ''hyperglobalizers''the ''transformationalists''tHE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON OUR LIVESIdentityWork patternsPopular cultureGLOBALIZATION AND RISKThe spread of ''manufactured risk''the global ''risk society''GLOBALIZATION AND INEQUALITYInequality and global stratificationThe campaign for ''global justice''CONCLUSION: THE NEED FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCESummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links4 Social Interaction and Everyday LifeTHE STUDY OF EVERYDAY LIFEMicrosociology and macrosociologyNON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIONThe face, gestures and emotion''Face'' and self esteemGender and non-verbal communicationSOCIAL RULES AND TALK Shared understandingsGarfinkel''s experiments''Interactional vandalism''Forms of talkResponse criesSlips of the tongueFACE, BODY AND SPEECH IN INTERACTIONEncounters MarkersImpression managementFront and back regionsPersonal spaceINTERACTION IN TIME AND SPACEClock timeSocial life and the ordering of space and timeCONCLUSION: THE COMPULSION OF PROXIMITYSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther reading5 Gender and SexualityGENDER DIFFERENCESGender socializationGender and biology: natural differenceThe social construction of gender and sexPERSPECTIVES ON GENDER INEQUALITYFunctionalist approachesFeminist approachesFEMININITIES, MASCULINITES AND GENDER RELATIONSR. W. Connell: the gender orderTransforming masculinitiesHUMAN SEXUALITYBiology and sexual behaviourSocial influences on sexual behaviourSexuality in Western cultureA new fidelity?HOMOSEXUALITYHomosexuality in Western cultureAttitudes towards homosexualityThe campaign for legal rights and recognitionProstitutionProstitution todayChild prostitution and the global ''sex industry''Explaining prostitutionCONCLUSION: GENDER AND GLOBALIZATIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links6 Sociology of the Body: Health, Illness and AgeingTHE SOCIOLOGY OF THE BODYTHE SOCIAL BASIS OF HEALTHClass and healthGender and healthRace and healthThe ''inverse care'' lawMEDICINE AND SOCIETYThe rise of the biomedical model of healthThe biomedical modelCritiques of the biomedical modelMedicine and health in a changing worldSOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HEALTH AND ILLNESSThe sick roleIllness as ''lived experience''HEALTH AND AGEINGThe physical effects of ageingProblems of ageingCONCLUSION: THE FUTURE OF AGEINGSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links7 FamiliesBASIC CONCEPTSFamily diversityTHEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE FAMILYFunctionalismFeminist approachesNew perspectives in the sociology of the familyMARRIAGE AND DIVORCE IN BRITAINLone-parent householdsRemarriageReconstituted familiesThe ''absent father''Women remaining childlessVARIATIONS IN FAMILY PATTERNS: ETHNIC DIVERSITY IN BRITAINSouth Asian familiesBlack familiesALTERNATIVES TO MARRIAGECohabitationGay and lesbian partnershipsVIOLENCE AND ABUSE IN FAMILY LIFEViolence within familiesSexual abuse of children
Anthony Giddens, a British sociologist, was educated at Hull, the London School of Economics, and Cambridge, and is a fellow of King's College, Cambridge. His interests have been varied, but they tend to focus on questions related to the macro-order. Much of his theoretical writing deals with stratification, class, and modernity. Although he has concentrated on dynamic issues of social structure, he has also examined how social psychological concerns are part of this broader order of human relations.