The Craft of Research (2nd Edition)
Since 1995, more than 150,000 students and researchers have turned to "The Craft of Research" for clear and helpful guidance on how to conduct research and report it effectively . Now, master teachers Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and...
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Since 1995, more than 150,000 students and researchers have turned to "The Craft of Research" for clear and helpful guidance on how to conduct research and report it effectively . Now, master teachers Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams present a completely revised and updated version of their classic handbook. ^Like its predecessor, this new edition reflects the way researchers actually work: in a complex circuit of thinking, writing, revising, and rethinking. It shows how each part of this process influences the others and how a successful research report is an orchestrated conversation between a researcher and a reader. Along with many other topics, "The Craft of Research" explains how to build an argument that motivates readers to accept a claim; how to anticipate the reservations of thoughtful yet critical readers and to respond to them appropriately; and how to create introductions and conclusions that answer that most demanding question, "So what?" ^
Preface I RESEARCH, RESEARCHERS, AND READERS PROLOGUE: STARTING A RESEARCH PROJECT 1 Thinking in Print: The Uses of Research, Public and Private 1.1 What Is Research? 1.2 Why Write It Up? 1.3 Why a Formal Report? 1.4 Conclusion 2 Connecting with Your Reader: (Re)Creating Your Self and Your Audience 2.1 Creating Roles for Writers and Readers 2.2 Creating a Relationship with Your Reader: Your Role 2.3 Creating the Other Half of the Relationship: The Reader's Role 2.4 Writing in Groups 2.5 Managing the Unavoidable Problem of Inexperience Quick Tip: A Checklist for Understanding Your Readers II ASKING QUESTIONS, FINDING ANSWERS PROLOGUE: PLANNING YOUR PROJECT 3 From Topics to Questions 3.1 From an Interest to a Topic 3.2 From a Broad Topic to a Focused One 3.3 From a Focused Topic to Questions 3.4 From a Merely Interesting Question to Its Wider Significance Quick Tip: Finding Topics 4 From Questions to Problems 4.1 Problems, Problems, Problems 4.2 The Common Structure of Problems 4.3 Finding a Good Research Problem 4.4 Summary: The Problem of the Problem Quick Tip: Disagreeing with Your Sources 5 From Problems to Sources 5.1 Screening Sources for Reliability 5.2 Locating Printed and Recorded Sources 5.3 Finding Sources on the Internet 5.4 Gathering Data Directly from People 5.5 Bibliographic Trails 5.6 What You Find 6 Using Sources 6.1 Three Uses for Sources 6.2 Read Generously but Critically 6.3 Preserving What You Find 6.4 Get Help Quick Tip: Speedy Reading III MAKING A CLAIM AND SUPPORTING IT PROLOGUE: PULLING TOGETHER YOUR ARGUMENT 7 Making Good Arguments: An Overview 7.1 Argument and Conversation 7.2 Basing Claims on Reasons 7.3 Basing Reasons on Evidence 7.4 Acknowledging and Responding to Alternatives 7.5 Warranting the Relevance of Reasons 7.6 Building Complex Arguments Out of Simple Ones 7.7 Arguments and Your Ethos Quick Tip: Designing Arguments Not for Yourself but for Your Readers: Two Common Pitfalls 8 Claims 8.1 What Kind of Claim? 8.2 Evaluating Your Claim Quick Tip: Qualifying Claims to Enhance Your Credibility 9 Reasons and Evidence 9.1 Using Reasons to Plan Your Argument 9.2 The Slippery Distinction between Reasons and Evidence 9.3 Evidence vs. Reports of Evidence 9.4 Select the Right Form for Reporting Evidence 9.5 Reliable Evidence Quick Tip: Showing the Relevance of Evidence 10 Acknowledgments and Responses 10.1 Questioning Your Argument 10.2 Finding Alternatives to Your Argument 10.3 Deciding What to Acknowledge 10.4 Responses as Subordinate Arguments Quick Tip: The Vocabulary of Acknowledgment and Response 11 Warrants 11.1 How Warrants Work 11.2 What Warrants Look Like 11.3 Knowing When to State a Warrant 11.4 Testing Your Warrants Quick Tip: Some Strategies for Challenging Warrants IV PREPARING TO DRAFT, DRAFTING, AND REVISING PROLOGUE: PLANNING AGAIN Quick Tip: Outlining 12 Planning and Drafting 12.1 Preliminaries to Drafting 12.2 Planning: Four Traps to Avoid 12.3 A Plan for Drafting 12.4 The Pitfall to Avoid at All Costs: Plagiarism 12.5 The Next Step Quick Tip: Using Quotation and Paraphrase 13 Revising Your Organization and Argument 13.1 Thinking Like a Reader 13.2 Analyzing and Revising Your Overall Organization 13.3 Revising Your Argument 13.4 The Last Step Quick Tip: Titles and Abstracts 14 Introductions and Conclusions 14.1 The Three Elements of an Introduction 14.2 Establish Common Ground 14.3 State Your Problem 14.4 State Your Response 14.5 Fast or Slow? 14.6 Organizing the Whole Introduction 14.7 Conclusions Quick Tip: Opening and Closing Words 15 Communicating Evidence Visually 15.1 Visual or Verbal? 15.2 Tables vs. Figures 15.3 Constructing Tables 15.4 Constructin
Colomb is professor of English language and literature at the University of Virginia.
Wayne C. Booth (1921-2005) was George M. Pullman Distinguished Service Professor of English at the University of Chicago.
Williams is currently the Managing Director for Network for Life and Detroit Transition of Prisoners, which are ministries of Prison Fellowship Ministries.