The Targums: A Critical Introduction
The value and significance of the targums--translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, the language of Palestinian Jews for centuries following the Babylonian Exile--lie in their approach to translation: within a typically literal rendering of a text, they incorporate extensive...
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The value and significance of the targums--translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, the language of Palestinian Jews for centuries following the Babylonian Exile--lie in their approach to translation: within a typically literal rendering of a text, they incorporate extensive exegetical material, additions, and paraphrases. These alterations reveal important information about Second Temple Judaism, its interpretation of its bible, and its beliefs.This remarkable survey introduces critical knowledge and insights that have emerged over the past forty years, including targum manuscripts discovered this century and targums known in Aramaic but only recently translated into English. Prolific scholars Flesher and Chilton guide readers in understanding the development of the targums, their relationship to the Hebrew Bible, their dates, their language, their place in the history of Christianity and Judaism, and their theologies and methods of interpretation.
Bruce Chilton (Ph.D., Cambridge University) is Bernard Iddings Bell Professor of Religion; Chaplain of the College; Executive Director of the Institute of Advanced Theology at Bard College. His books include Rabbi Jesus: An Intimate Biography, God in Strength, Rabbi Paul: An Intellectual Biography, Judaic Approaches to the Gospels, Revelation, Trading Places, Jesus' Prayer and Jesus' Eucharist, Forging a Common Future, and Jesus' Baptism and Jesus' Healing. Editor in chief, Bulletin for Biblical Research; founding editor, Journal for the Study of the New Testament, Studying the Historical Jesus series (E.J. Brill and Eerdmans). Fellowships and awards: with Jacob Neusner, Choice magazine award, best academic book (1998); Evangelical Scholars Fellowship, A. Whitney Griswold Center (Yale University).
- Preface Acknowledgments List Of Abbreviations Section I: Getting Started 1 Introduction 2 Defining Targum 3 The Seven Rules Of Targum 4 Rabbinic Literature Section Ii: The Pentateuchal Targums 5 Pentateuchal Targums: The Basics 6 Sources Of The Palestinian Targums 7 Targum Onqelos And The Targums Of Israel 8 The Pentateuchal Targums In Rabbinic Literature 9 Dating The Targums Of Israel Section Iii: The Targums Of The Prophets And The Writings 10 Targum Jonathan Of The Prophets: Its Development As Revealed By The Targum Of Isaiah 11 Targum Jonathan: Former And Latter Prophets 12 Targums To The Writings Section Iv: The Targums In Late-antique Judaism 13 Aramaic In Judaism 14 Targums And Translation In The History Of Rabbinic Literature 15 Targum As Scripture And Hidden Interpretation 16 Ancient Scripture Translations Section V: The Targums And Early Christianity 17 Comparing The Targums And The New Testament 18 The Aramaic Retroversion Of Jesus Sayings 19 The Fourth Gospel And Targumic Memra Section Vi: Conclusions And Prospects 20 Genesis 22 In The Targumim And In Early Jewish And Christian Interpretation 21 Targums In The Rabbinic World And Beyond Appendix A: The Parallel Expansions Of Genesis 28-50 Appendix B: A Guide To Babylonian Pointing Glossary Bibliography Index