Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Counterpoints Series)
This book in the Counterpoints: Exploring Theology series introduces three approaches presently employed in the study of the uses of the Old Testament in the New Testament, especially in those instances where the New Testament authors discern the fulfillment of...
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This book in the Counterpoints: Exploring Theology series introduces three approaches presently employed in the study of the uses of the Old Testament in the New Testament, especially in those instances where the New Testament authors discern the fulfillment of a prophetic element in the Old Testament text. The foundational issue concerns the relationship between an Old Testament author's meaning and the meaning of that same passage when it is used by a New Testament author. Is the intention of the human author of an Old Testament passage one and the same with God's intention or is there in some way a fuller meaning (sensus plenior) that God intended that eclipses the Old Testament author's understanding and meaning? Is there a single meaning to an Old Testament text or are there more than one?
^ ^The book incorporates questions about the nature of fulfillment and typology as aspects of this seminal issue. Each contributor addresses such important issues as
1) Methodology: To what extent do the New Testament authors share in the interpretive environment, assumptions, and methods of other authors of the second temple period? 2) Context: Are the New Testament authors drawing upon the broader contexts of the passages they are using or are they using them atomistically? 3) Modeling: Should we model our exegesis after that of the apostles? Finally, each contributor offers three examples of complex use of the Old Testament by New Testament authors, giving readers the opportunity to compare the respective approaches "in action." ^ ^Views and Contributors:
^ ^Single Meaning, Unified Referents: Walter C. Kaiser, Jr. In essence, Kaiser argues that the meaning and intent of the Old Testament author is the same as that intended by the Divine Author. When the New Testament author then picks up the Old Testament text and applies it to Jesus, this messianic reference was already there in the mind of the Old Testament author.
^ ^Single Meaning, Multiple Contexts and References: Darrell L. Bock
^ ^The second view perceives an identity between the meanings intended by the Old Testament author and the Divine Author. But the "reference" intended by the human author may not extend to what the Divine Author ultimately intends as it is used in new contexts. So, when the New Testament author applies the Old Testament text to its fulfillment in Jesus or the community created by him, and when this application involves a change in reference, this is perceived to be consistent with what the Divine Author intended all along.
^ ^Fuller Meaning, Single Goal: Peter Enns
^ ^The third view involves a shift from the second view.
^ ^Proponents of this view argue that it is unnecessary to defend the identity of meaning between that of the Old Testament author and the Divine Author. Rather, since God is ultimately the Author of Scripture, we should not be surprised if it is capable of conveying multiple meanings. Accordingly, the New Testament author's application of the Old Testament text to its New Testament fulfillment does not necessarily involve using the text in ways that convey the same meaning as intended by the Old Testament author. Since the New Testament authors read the Old Testament as having its ultimate goal in Jesus, New Testament authors are justified in perceiving "Christotelic" significance in Old Testament texts whose authors may not have intended this significance
To read the New Testament is to meet the Old Testament at every turn. But exactly how do Old Testament texts relate to their New Testament references and allusions? Moreover, what fruitful interpretive methods do New Testament texts demonstrate? Leading biblical scholars Walter Kaiser, Darrel Bock and Peter Enns each present their answers to questions surrounding the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament. Contributors address elements such as Divine and human authorial intent, the context of Old Testament references, and theological grounds for an interpretive method. Each author applies his framework to specific texts so that readers can see how their methods work out in practice. Each contributor also receives a thorough critique from the other two authors. A one-stop reference for setting the scene and presenting approaches to the topic that respect the biblical text, Three Views on the New Testament Use of Old Testament gives readers the tools they need to develop their own views on this important subject. The Counterpoints series provides a forum for comparison and critique of different views on issues important to Christians. Counterpoints books address two categories: Church Life and Bible and Theology. Complete your library with other books in the Counterpoints series.
Walter C. Kaiser, Ph.D., is the President of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary and the Colman M. Mockler distinguished Professor of Old Testament. He was previously the Academic Dean and Vice President of Education, as well as Professor of Old Testament and Semitic Languages at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, IL.
Dr. Kaiser has written many books including, The Old Testament in Contemporary Preaching, Classical Evangelical Essays in Old Testament Interpretation, Toward an Old Testament Theology, A Biblical Approach to Personal Suffering, Ecclesiastes: Total Life, Toward an Exegetical Theology, Biblical Exegesis for Preaching and Teaching, Hard Sayings of the Old Testament and The Messiah in the Old Testament: a History of Israel.
-Editorial Review- Koorong.
Darrell L.Bock (Ph.D., University of Aberdeen) is Research Professor of New Testament Studies, Professor of Spiritual Development and Culture (CCL) at Dallas Theological Seminary. Dr. Bock has earned international recognition as a Humboldt Scholar (Tubingen University in Germany).He is the author or editor of many books, including the two-volume commentary on Luke and the volume on Acts (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament series), Jesus according to Scripture, The Missing Gospels, Jesus in Context, and Studying the Historical Jesus.
Peter Enns (Ph.D., Harvard University) is senior fellow of biblical studies for The BioLogos Foundation, an organization founded by Francis Collins that explores, promotes, and celebrates the integration of science and Christian faith. He was professor of Old Testament and Biblical hermeneutics at Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. He is the author of Poetry and Wisdom; Exodus Retold; Inspiration and Incarnation: Evangelicals and the Problem of the Old Testament and Exodus (NIV Application Commentary series).
His latest works are Ecclesiastes (Two Horizons Commentary); Three Views on the New Testaments Use of the Old Testament co-written with Walter Kaiser and Darrell Bock and The Evolution of Adam: What the Bible Does and Doesn't Say about Human Origins (Brazos, 2012)
Koorong -Editorial Review.